array(12) { ["settings_general"]=> object(stdClass)#297 (14) { ["site_url"]=> string(21) "https://newsvally.com" ["site_title"]=> string(79) "News Aggregator - Top News Stories From Your Favourite News Source | News Vally" ["analytics_code"]=> string(423) "" ["mailchimp_form"]=> string(0) "" ["logo_76"]=> string(52) "http://rss.app/uploads/images/57a82fa4e0e92_file.png" ["logo_120"]=> string(62) "http://www.newsvally.com/uploads/images/58c3ba4c44b49_file.png" ["logo_152"]=> string(52) "http://rss.app/uploads/images/57a82fa533e8b_file.png" ["favicon"]=> string(52) "http://rss.app/uploads/images/57a82fa53f61a_file.png" ["site_post_as_titles"]=> int(1) ["generate_sitemap"]=> int(1) ["generate_rss_feeds"]=> int(1) ["include_sources"]=> int(1) ["locale"]=> string(2) "en" ["timezone"]=> string(16) "America/New_York" } ["settings_seo"]=> object(stdClass)#306 (4) { ["seo_keywords"]=> string(47) "rss aggregator,news aggregator,top news stories" ["seo_description"]=> string(159) "News Vally aggregate the latest technology, digital marketing, science, automobile, hr new and article from your favorite source to keep you updated every day" ["google_verify"]=> string(94) "" ["bing_verify"]=> string(72) "" } ["settings_comments"]=> object(stdClass)#301 (7) { ["comment_system"]=> string(6) "disqus" ["fb_js"]=> string(366) "
" ["fb_num_posts"]=> string(1) "5" ["fb_comment_count"]=> int(0) ["disqus_js"]=> string(959) "
" ["disqus_comment_count"]=> int(1) ["show_comment_box"]=> int(1) } ["settings_social"]=> object(stdClass)#299 (14) { ["fb_page_url"]=> string(40) "https://www.facebook.com/newsaggregatorr" ["twitter_handle"]=> string(17) "@newsaggregatorr " ["twitter_url"]=> string(23) "https://www.twitter.com" ["google_plus_page_url"]=> string(23) "https://plus.google.com" ["skype_username"]=> string(0) "" ["youtube_channel_url"]=> string(23) "https://www.youtube.com" ["vimeo_channel_url"]=> string(21) "https://www.vimeo.com" ["addthis_js"]=> string(384) " " ["sharethis_js"]=> string(0) "" ["sharethis_span_tags"]=> string(0) "" ["facebook_box_js"]=> string(0) "" ["twitter_box_js"]=> string(0) "" ["show_sharing"]=> int(1) ["show_big_sharing"]=> int(0) } ["settings_custom_js"]=> object(stdClass)#303 (1) { ["custom_js"]=> string(69) "" } ["settings_custom_css"]=> object(stdClass)#307 (1) { ["custom_css"]=> string(139) "" } ["just_posted"]=> object(Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Collection)#311 (1) { ["items":protected]=> array(5) { [0]=> object(App\Posts)#312 (23) { ["table":protected]=> string(5) "posts" ["connection":protected]=> NULL ["primaryKey":protected]=> string(2) "id" ["perPage":protected]=> int(15) ["incrementing"]=> bool(true) ["timestamps"]=> bool(true) ["attributes":protected]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(113375) ["author_id"]=> int(3) ["title"]=> string(58) "Webmentions: Enabling Better Communication on the Internet" ["slug"]=> string(57) "webmentions-enabling-better-communication-on-the-internet" ["link"]=> string(87) "http://alistapart.com/article/webmentions-enabling-better-communication-on-the-internet" ["featured"]=> int(0) ["category_id"]=> int(36) ["type"]=> string(6) "source" ["source_id"]=> int(225) ["description"]=> string(17485) "

Over 1 million Webmentions will have been sent across the internet since the specification was made a full Recommendation by the W3C—the standards body that guides the direction of the web—in early January 2017. That number is rising rapidly, and in the last few weeks I’ve seen a growing volume of chatter on social media and the blogosphere about these new “mentions” and the people implementing them.

So what are Webmentions and why should we care?

While the technical specification published by the W3C may seem incomprehensible to most, it’s actually a straightforward and extremely useful concept with a relatively simple implementation. Webmentions help to break down some of the artificial walls being built within the internet and so help create a more open and decentralized web. There is also an expanding list of major web platforms already supporting Webmentions either natively or with easy-to-use plugins (more on this later).

Put simply, Webmention is a (now) standardized protocol that enables one website address (URL) to notify another website address that the former contains a reference to the latter. It also allows the latter to verify the authenticity of the reference and include its own corresponding reference in a reciprocal way. In order to understand what a big step forward this is, a little history is needed.

The rise of @mentions

By now most people are familiar with the ubiquitous use of the “@” symbol in front of a username, which originated on Twitter and became known as @mentions and @replies (read “at mentions” and “at replies”). For the vast majority, this is the way that one user communicates with other users on the platform, and over the past decade these @mentions, with their corresponding notification to the receiver, have become a relatively standard way of communicating on the internet.

Tweet from Wiz Khalifa: 'I been smashed the idea of that album even existing. I got joints to roll @kanyewest'
Tweet from Wiz Khalifa

Many other services also use this type of internal notification to indicate to other users that they have been referenced directly or tagged in a post or photograph. Facebook allows it, so does Instagram. Google+ has a variant that uses + instead of @, and even the long-form article platform Medium, whose founder Ev Williams also co-founded Twitter, quickly joined the @mentions party.

The biggest communications problem on the internet

If you use Twitter, your friend Alice only uses Facebook, your friend Bob only uses his blog on WordPress, and your pal Chuck is over on Medium, it’s impossible for any one of you to @mention another. You’re all on different and competing platforms, none of which interoperate to send these mentions or notifications of them. The only way to communicate in this way is if you all join the same social media platforms, resulting in the average person being signed up to multiple services just to stay in touch with all their friends and acquaintances.

Given the issues of privacy and identity protection, different use cases, the burden of additional usernames and passwords, and the time involved, many people don’t want to do this. Possibly worst of all, your personal identity on the internet can end up fragmented like a Horcrux across multiple websites over which you have little, if any, control.

Imagine if AT&T customers could only speak to other AT&T customers and needed a separate phone, account, and phone number to speak to friends and family on Verizon. And still another to talk to friends on Sprint or T-Mobile. The massive benefit of the telephone system is that if you have a telephone and service (from any one of hundreds or even thousands of providers worldwide), you can potentially reach anyone else using the network. Surely, with a basic architecture based on simple standards, links, and interconnections, the same should apply to the internet?

The solution? Enter Webmentions!

As mentioned earlier, Webmentions allow notifications between web addresses. If both sites are set up to send and receive them, the system works like this:

  1. Alice has a website where she writes an article about her rocket engine hobby.
  2. Bob has his own website where he writes a reply to Alice’s article. Within his reply, Bob includes the permalink URL of Alice’s article.
  3. When Bob publishes his reply, his publishing software automatically notifies Alice’s server that her post has been linked to by the URL of Bob’s reply.
  4. Alice’s publishing software verifies that Bob’s post actually contains a link to her post and then (optionally) includes information about Bob’s post on her site; for example, displaying it as a comment.

A Webmention is simply an @mention that works from one website to another!

If she chooses, Alice can include the full text of Bob’s reply—along with his name, photo, and his article’s URL (presuming he’s made these available)—as a comment on her original post. Any new readers of Alice’s article can then see Bob’s reply underneath it. Each can carry on a full conversation from their own websites and in both cases display (if they wish) the full context and content.

Diagram showing comments sections on two different websites, carrying on a single conversation
Using Webmentions, both sides can carry on a conversation where each is able to own a copy of the content and provide richer context.

User behaviors with Webmentions are a little different than they are with @mentions on Twitter and the like in that they work between websites in addition to within a particular website. They enable authors (of both the original content and the responses) to own the content, allowing them to keep a record on the web page where it originated, whether that’s a website they own or the third-party platform from which they chose to send it.

Interaction examples with Webmention

Webmentions certainly aren’t limited to creating or displaying “traditional” comments or replies. With the use of simple semantic microformats classes and a variety of parsers written in numerous languages, one can explicitly post bookmarks, likes, favorites, RSVPs, check-ins, listens, follows, reads, reviews, issues, edits, and even purchases. The result? Richer connections and interactions with other content on the web and a genuine two-way conversation instead of a mass of unidirectional links. We’ll take a look at some examples, but you can find more on the IndieWeb wiki page for Webmention alongside some other useful resources.

Marginalia

With Webmention support, one could architect a site to allow inline marginalia and highlighting similar to Medium.com’s relatively well-known functionality. With the clever use of URL fragments, which are well supported in major browsers, there are already examples of people who use Webmentions to display word-, sentence-, or paragraph-level marginalia on their sites. After all, aren’t inline annotations just a more targeted version of comments?

Screenshot of an article with a response off to the side
An inline annotation on the post “Hey Ev, what about mentions?,” in which Medium began to roll out their @mention functionality.

Reads

As another example, and something that could profoundly impact the online news business, I might post a link on my website indicating I’ve read a particular article on, say, The New York Times. My site sends a “read” Webmention to the article, where a facepile or counter showing the number of read Webmentions received could be implemented. Because of the simplified two-way link between the two web pages, there is now auditable proof of interaction with the content. This could similarly work with microinteractions such as likes, favorites, bookmarks, and reposts, resulting in a clearer representation of the particular types of interaction a piece of content has received. Compared to an array of nebulous social media mini-badges that provide only basic counters, this is a potentially more valuable indicator of a post’s popularity, reach, and ultimate impact.

Listens

Building on the idea of using reads, one could extend Webmentions to the podcasting or online music sectors. Many platforms are reasonably good at providing download numbers for podcasts, but it is far more difficult to track the number of actual listens. This can have a profound effect on the advertising market that supports many podcasts. People can post about what they’re actively listening to (either on their personal websites or via podcast apps that could report the percentage of the episode listened to) and send “listen” Webmentions to pages for podcasts or other audio content. These could then be aggregated for demographics on the back end or even shown on the particular episode’s page as social proof of the podcast’s popularity.

For additional fun, podcasters or musicians might use Webmentions in conjunction with media fragments and audio or video content to add timecode-specific, inline comments to audio/video players to create an open standards version of SoundCloud-like annotations and commenting.

Screenshot of a Soundcloud audio file with little icons scatter about the timeline
SoundCloud allows users to insert inline comments that dovetail with specific portions of audio.

Reviews

Websites selling products or services could also accept review-based Webmentions that include star-based ratings scales as well as written comments with photos, audio, or even video. Because Webmentions are a two-way protocol, the reverse link to the original provides an auditable path to the reviewer and the opportunity to assess how trustworthy their review may be. Of course, third-party trusted sites might also accept these reviews, so that the receiving sites can’t easily cherry-pick only positive reviews for display. And because the Webmention specification includes the functionality for editing or deletion, the original author has the option to update or remove their reviews at any time.

Getting started with Webmentions

Extant platforms with support

While the specification has only recently become a broad recommendation for use on the internet, there are already an actively growing number of content management systems (CMSs) and platforms that support Webmentions, either natively or with plugins. The simplest option, requiring almost no work, is a relatively new and excellent social media service called Micro.blog, which handles Webmentions out of the box. CMSs like Known and Perch also have Webmention functionality built in. Download and set up the open source software and you’re ready to go.

If you’re working with WordPress, there’s a simple Webmention plugin that will allow you to begin using Webmentions—just download and activate it. (For additional functionality when displaying Webmentions, there’s also the recommended Semantic Linkbacks plugin.) Other CMSs like Drupal, ProcessWire, Elgg, Nucleus CMS, Craft, Django, and Kirby also have plugins that support the standard. A wide variety of static site generators, like Hugo and Jekyll, have solutions for Webmention technology as well. More are certainly coming.

If you can compose basic HTML on your website, Aaron Parecki has written an excellent primer on “Sending Your First Webmention from Scratch.”

A weak form of Webmention support can be bootstrapped for Tumblr, WordPress.com, Blogger, and Medium with help from the free Bridgy service, but the user interface and display would obviously be better if they were supported fully and natively.

As a last resort, if you’re using Tumblr, WordPress.com, Wix, Squarespace, Ghost, Joomla, Magento, or any of the other systems without Webmention, file tickets asking them to support the standard. It only takes a few days of work for a reasonably experienced developer to build support, and it substantially improves the value of the platform for its users. It also makes them first-class decentralized internet citizens.

Webmentions for developers

If you’re a developer or a company able to hire a developer, it is relatively straightforward to build Webmentions into your CMS or project, even potentially open-sourcing the solution as a plugin for others. For anyone familiar with the old specifications for pingback or trackback, you can think of Webmentions as a major iteration of those systems, but with easier implementation and testing, improved performance and display capabilities, and decreased spam vulnerabilities. Because the specification supports editing and deleting Webmentions, it provides individuals with more direct control of their data, which is important in light of new laws like GDPR.

In addition to reading the specification, as mentioned previously, there are multiple open source implementations already written in a variety of languages that you can use directly, or as examples. There are also a test suite and pre-built services like Webmention.io, Telegraph, mention-tech, and webmention.herokuapp.com that can be quickly leveraged.

Maybe your company allows employees to spend 20% of their time on non-specific projects, as Google does. If so, I’d encourage you to take the opportunity to fbuild Webmentions support for one or more platforms—let’s spread the love and democratize communication on the web as fast as we can!

And if you already have a major social platform but don’t want to completely open up to sending and receiving Webmentions, consider using Webmention functionality as a simple post API. I could easily see services like Twitter, Mastodon, or Google+ supporting the receiving of Webmentions, combined with a simple parsing mechanism to allow Webmention senders to publish syndicated content on their platform. There are already several services like IndieNews, with Hacker News-like functionality, that allow posting to them via Webmention.

If you have problems or questions, I’d recommend joining the IndieWeb chat room online via IRC, web interface, Slack, or Matrix to gain access to further hints, pointers, and resources for implementing a particular Webmention solution.

The expansion of Webmentions

The big question many will now have is Will the traditional social media walled gardens like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and the like support the Webmention specification?

At present, they don’t, and many may never do so. After all, locking you into their services is enabling them to leverage your content and your interactions to generate income. However, I suspect that if one of the major social platforms enabled sending/receiving Webmentions, it would dramatically disrupt the entire social space.

In the meantime, if your site already has Webmentions enabled, then congratulations on joining the next revolution in web communication! Just make sure you advertise the fact by using a button or badge. You can download a copy here.

" ["lists_description"]=> string(0) "" ["featured_image"]=> string(0) "" ["views"]=> int(6) ["status"]=> int(1) ["created_at"]=> string(19) "2018-07-19 21:39:32" ["updated_at"]=> string(19) "2018-07-19 16:54:33" ["show_in_mega_menu"]=> int(0) ["render_type"]=> string(4) "text" ["video_embed_code"]=> string(0) "" ["image_parallax"]=> int(0) ["video_parallax"]=> int(0) ["rating_box"]=> int(0) ["show_featured_image_in_post"]=> int(0) ["show_author_box"]=> int(0) ["show_author_socials"]=> int(0) ["dont_show_author_publisher"]=> int(1) ["show_post_source"]=> int(0) ["rating_desc"]=> string(0) "" } ["original":protected]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(113375) ["author_id"]=> int(3) ["title"]=> string(58) "Webmentions: Enabling Better Communication on the Internet" ["slug"]=> string(57) "webmentions-enabling-better-communication-on-the-internet" ["link"]=> string(87) "http://alistapart.com/article/webmentions-enabling-better-communication-on-the-internet" ["featured"]=> int(0) ["category_id"]=> int(36) ["type"]=> string(6) "source" ["source_id"]=> int(225) ["description"]=> string(17485) "

Over 1 million Webmentions will have been sent across the internet since the specification was made a full Recommendation by the W3C—the standards body that guides the direction of the web—in early January 2017. That number is rising rapidly, and in the last few weeks I’ve seen a growing volume of chatter on social media and the blogosphere about these new “mentions” and the people implementing them.

So what are Webmentions and why should we care?

While the technical specification published by the W3C may seem incomprehensible to most, it’s actually a straightforward and extremely useful concept with a relatively simple implementation. Webmentions help to break down some of the artificial walls being built within the internet and so help create a more open and decentralized web. There is also an expanding list of major web platforms already supporting Webmentions either natively or with easy-to-use plugins (more on this later).

Put simply, Webmention is a (now) standardized protocol that enables one website address (URL) to notify another website address that the former contains a reference to the latter. It also allows the latter to verify the authenticity of the reference and include its own corresponding reference in a reciprocal way. In order to understand what a big step forward this is, a little history is needed.

The rise of @mentions

By now most people are familiar with the ubiquitous use of the “@” symbol in front of a username, which originated on Twitter and became known as @mentions and @replies (read “at mentions” and “at replies”). For the vast majority, this is the way that one user communicates with other users on the platform, and over the past decade these @mentions, with their corresponding notification to the receiver, have become a relatively standard way of communicating on the internet.

Tweet from Wiz Khalifa: 'I been smashed the idea of that album even existing. I got joints to roll @kanyewest'
Tweet from Wiz Khalifa

Many other services also use this type of internal notification to indicate to other users that they have been referenced directly or tagged in a post or photograph. Facebook allows it, so does Instagram. Google+ has a variant that uses + instead of @, and even the long-form article platform Medium, whose founder Ev Williams also co-founded Twitter, quickly joined the @mentions party.

The biggest communications problem on the internet

If you use Twitter, your friend Alice only uses Facebook, your friend Bob only uses his blog on WordPress, and your pal Chuck is over on Medium, it’s impossible for any one of you to @mention another. You’re all on different and competing platforms, none of which interoperate to send these mentions or notifications of them. The only way to communicate in this way is if you all join the same social media platforms, resulting in the average person being signed up to multiple services just to stay in touch with all their friends and acquaintances.

Given the issues of privacy and identity protection, different use cases, the burden of additional usernames and passwords, and the time involved, many people don’t want to do this. Possibly worst of all, your personal identity on the internet can end up fragmented like a Horcrux across multiple websites over which you have little, if any, control.

Imagine if AT&T customers could only speak to other AT&T customers and needed a separate phone, account, and phone number to speak to friends and family on Verizon. And still another to talk to friends on Sprint or T-Mobile. The massive benefit of the telephone system is that if you have a telephone and service (from any one of hundreds or even thousands of providers worldwide), you can potentially reach anyone else using the network. Surely, with a basic architecture based on simple standards, links, and interconnections, the same should apply to the internet?

The solution? Enter Webmentions!

As mentioned earlier, Webmentions allow notifications between web addresses. If both sites are set up to send and receive them, the system works like this:

  1. Alice has a website where she writes an article about her rocket engine hobby.
  2. Bob has his own website where he writes a reply to Alice’s article. Within his reply, Bob includes the permalink URL of Alice’s article.
  3. When Bob publishes his reply, his publishing software automatically notifies Alice’s server that her post has been linked to by the URL of Bob’s reply.
  4. Alice’s publishing software verifies that Bob’s post actually contains a link to her post and then (optionally) includes information about Bob’s post on her site; for example, displaying it as a comment.

A Webmention is simply an @mention that works from one website to another!

If she chooses, Alice can include the full text of Bob’s reply—along with his name, photo, and his article’s URL (presuming he’s made these available)—as a comment on her original post. Any new readers of Alice’s article can then see Bob’s reply underneath it. Each can carry on a full conversation from their own websites and in both cases display (if they wish) the full context and content.

Diagram showing comments sections on two different websites, carrying on a single conversation
Using Webmentions, both sides can carry on a conversation where each is able to own a copy of the content and provide richer context.

User behaviors with Webmentions are a little different than they are with @mentions on Twitter and the like in that they work between websites in addition to within a particular website. They enable authors (of both the original content and the responses) to own the content, allowing them to keep a record on the web page where it originated, whether that’s a website they own or the third-party platform from which they chose to send it.

Interaction examples with Webmention

Webmentions certainly aren’t limited to creating or displaying “traditional” comments or replies. With the use of simple semantic microformats classes and a variety of parsers written in numerous languages, one can explicitly post bookmarks, likes, favorites, RSVPs, check-ins, listens, follows, reads, reviews, issues, edits, and even purchases. The result? Richer connections and interactions with other content on the web and a genuine two-way conversation instead of a mass of unidirectional links. We’ll take a look at some examples, but you can find more on the IndieWeb wiki page for Webmention alongside some other useful resources.

Marginalia

With Webmention support, one could architect a site to allow inline marginalia and highlighting similar to Medium.com’s relatively well-known functionality. With the clever use of URL fragments, which are well supported in major browsers, there are already examples of people who use Webmentions to display word-, sentence-, or paragraph-level marginalia on their sites. After all, aren’t inline annotations just a more targeted version of comments?

Screenshot of an article with a response off to the side
An inline annotation on the post “Hey Ev, what about mentions?,” in which Medium began to roll out their @mention functionality.

Reads

As another example, and something that could profoundly impact the online news business, I might post a link on my website indicating I’ve read a particular article on, say, The New York Times. My site sends a “read” Webmention to the article, where a facepile or counter showing the number of read Webmentions received could be implemented. Because of the simplified two-way link between the two web pages, there is now auditable proof of interaction with the content. This could similarly work with microinteractions such as likes, favorites, bookmarks, and reposts, resulting in a clearer representation of the particular types of interaction a piece of content has received. Compared to an array of nebulous social media mini-badges that provide only basic counters, this is a potentially more valuable indicator of a post’s popularity, reach, and ultimate impact.

Listens

Building on the idea of using reads, one could extend Webmentions to the podcasting or online music sectors. Many platforms are reasonably good at providing download numbers for podcasts, but it is far more difficult to track the number of actual listens. This can have a profound effect on the advertising market that supports many podcasts. People can post about what they’re actively listening to (either on their personal websites or via podcast apps that could report the percentage of the episode listened to) and send “listen” Webmentions to pages for podcasts or other audio content. These could then be aggregated for demographics on the back end or even shown on the particular episode’s page as social proof of the podcast’s popularity.

For additional fun, podcasters or musicians might use Webmentions in conjunction with media fragments and audio or video content to add timecode-specific, inline comments to audio/video players to create an open standards version of SoundCloud-like annotations and commenting.

Screenshot of a Soundcloud audio file with little icons scatter about the timeline
SoundCloud allows users to insert inline comments that dovetail with specific portions of audio.

Reviews

Websites selling products or services could also accept review-based Webmentions that include star-based ratings scales as well as written comments with photos, audio, or even video. Because Webmentions are a two-way protocol, the reverse link to the original provides an auditable path to the reviewer and the opportunity to assess how trustworthy their review may be. Of course, third-party trusted sites might also accept these reviews, so that the receiving sites can’t easily cherry-pick only positive reviews for display. And because the Webmention specification includes the functionality for editing or deletion, the original author has the option to update or remove their reviews at any time.

Getting started with Webmentions

Extant platforms with support

While the specification has only recently become a broad recommendation for use on the internet, there are already an actively growing number of content management systems (CMSs) and platforms that support Webmentions, either natively or with plugins. The simplest option, requiring almost no work, is a relatively new and excellent social media service called Micro.blog, which handles Webmentions out of the box. CMSs like Known and Perch also have Webmention functionality built in. Download and set up the open source software and you’re ready to go.

If you’re working with WordPress, there’s a simple Webmention plugin that will allow you to begin using Webmentions—just download and activate it. (For additional functionality when displaying Webmentions, there’s also the recommended Semantic Linkbacks plugin.) Other CMSs like Drupal, ProcessWire, Elgg, Nucleus CMS, Craft, Django, and Kirby also have plugins that support the standard. A wide variety of static site generators, like Hugo and Jekyll, have solutions for Webmention technology as well. More are certainly coming.

If you can compose basic HTML on your website, Aaron Parecki has written an excellent primer on “Sending Your First Webmention from Scratch.”

A weak form of Webmention support can be bootstrapped for Tumblr, WordPress.com, Blogger, and Medium with help from the free Bridgy service, but the user interface and display would obviously be better if they were supported fully and natively.

As a last resort, if you’re using Tumblr, WordPress.com, Wix, Squarespace, Ghost, Joomla, Magento, or any of the other systems without Webmention, file tickets asking them to support the standard. It only takes a few days of work for a reasonably experienced developer to build support, and it substantially improves the value of the platform for its users. It also makes them first-class decentralized internet citizens.

Webmentions for developers

If you’re a developer or a company able to hire a developer, it is relatively straightforward to build Webmentions into your CMS or project, even potentially open-sourcing the solution as a plugin for others. For anyone familiar with the old specifications for pingback or trackback, you can think of Webmentions as a major iteration of those systems, but with easier implementation and testing, improved performance and display capabilities, and decreased spam vulnerabilities. Because the specification supports editing and deleting Webmentions, it provides individuals with more direct control of their data, which is important in light of new laws like GDPR.

In addition to reading the specification, as mentioned previously, there are multiple open source implementations already written in a variety of languages that you can use directly, or as examples. There are also a test suite and pre-built services like Webmention.io, Telegraph, mention-tech, and webmention.herokuapp.com that can be quickly leveraged.

Maybe your company allows employees to spend 20% of their time on non-specific projects, as Google does. If so, I’d encourage you to take the opportunity to fbuild Webmentions support for one or more platforms—let’s spread the love and democratize communication on the web as fast as we can!

And if you already have a major social platform but don’t want to completely open up to sending and receiving Webmentions, consider using Webmention functionality as a simple post API. I could easily see services like Twitter, Mastodon, or Google+ supporting the receiving of Webmentions, combined with a simple parsing mechanism to allow Webmention senders to publish syndicated content on their platform. There are already several services like IndieNews, with Hacker News-like functionality, that allow posting to them via Webmention.

If you have problems or questions, I’d recommend joining the IndieWeb chat room online via IRC, web interface, Slack, or Matrix to gain access to further hints, pointers, and resources for implementing a particular Webmention solution.

The expansion of Webmentions

The big question many will now have is Will the traditional social media walled gardens like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and the like support the Webmention specification?

At present, they don’t, and many may never do so. After all, locking you into their services is enabling them to leverage your content and your interactions to generate income. However, I suspect that if one of the major social platforms enabled sending/receiving Webmentions, it would dramatically disrupt the entire social space.

In the meantime, if your site already has Webmentions enabled, then congratulations on joining the next revolution in web communication! Just make sure you advertise the fact by using a button or badge. You can download a copy here.

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/

The post / appeared first on TechCo.

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/

The post / appeared first on TechCo.

" ["lists_description"]=> string(0) "" ["featured_image"]=> string(0) "" ["views"]=> int(6) ["status"]=> int(1) ["created_at"]=> string(19) "2018-07-19 21:32:47" ["updated_at"]=> string(19) "2018-07-19 16:55:05" ["show_in_mega_menu"]=> int(0) ["render_type"]=> string(4) "text" ["video_embed_code"]=> string(0) "" ["image_parallax"]=> int(0) ["video_parallax"]=> int(0) ["rating_box"]=> int(0) ["show_featured_image_in_post"]=> int(0) ["show_author_box"]=> int(0) ["show_author_socials"]=> int(0) ["dont_show_author_publisher"]=> int(1) ["show_post_source"]=> int(0) ["rating_desc"]=> string(0) "" } ["relations":protected]=> array(0) { } ["hidden":protected]=> array(0) { } ["visible":protected]=> array(0) { } ["appends":protected]=> array(0) { } ["fillable":protected]=> array(0) { } ["guarded":protected]=> array(1) { [0]=> string(1) "*" } ["dates":protected]=> array(0) { } ["dateFormat":protected]=> NULL ["casts":protected]=> array(0) { } ["touches":protected]=> array(0) { } ["observables":protected]=> array(0) { } ["with":protected]=> array(0) { } ["morphClass":protected]=> NULL ["exists"]=> bool(true) ["wasRecentlyCreated"]=> bool(false) } [2]=> object(App\Posts)#314 (23) { ["table":protected]=> string(5) "posts" ["connection":protected]=> NULL ["primaryKey":protected]=> string(2) "id" ["perPage":protected]=> int(15) ["incrementing"]=> bool(true) ["timestamps"]=> bool(true) ["attributes":protected]=> array(28) { ["id"]=> int(113331) ["author_id"]=> int(3) ["title"]=> string(72) "one.chick-fil-a.com/forgot2scan – Enter Treat Progress Chick-fil-A One" ["slug"]=> string(65) "onechick-fil-acomforgot2scan-enter-treat-progress-chick-fil-a-one" ["link"]=> string(65) "http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/affiliatehelp/yPyX/~3/D34b1ciZLh8/" ["featured"]=> int(0) ["category_id"]=> int(21) ["type"]=> string(6) "source" ["source_id"]=> int(78) ["description"]=> string(4152) "

Forgot to Scan the Chick-fil-A One App?  Record Treat Progress Online! 

When something has been earned credit should be provided regardless of whether or not a small technicality has been overlooked.  With that being said, Chick-fil-A One members no longer need to worry about missing out on earned treat progress due to the simple mistake of forgetting to scan the app (something likely to have kept many up tossing and turning all night long).  Fortunately, the simple solution comes in the form of the convenient online tool found at one.chick-fil-a.com/forgot2scan.  The process of recording the treat progress can be initiated by first logging into a Chick-fil-A One account (an email address or one of the available third-party accounts can be used to complete the login).  Once the login has been completed the required information from the Chick-fil-A receipt can be entered to keep track of those tasty treats!  Those who plan on coming back often may want to check the Remember Me box before logging in (might as well speed things up a bit).

Hopefully I’m not the only one who went to Chick-fil-A and forgot 2 scan!

It is important to note that the restaurant number, order date, order number, order method, and order total MUST be entered in order to receive credit for a missed scan at one.chick-fil-a.com/forgot2scan.  Those who are having trouble getting into an account due to a lost or forgotten password can click the Forgot password? link and enter an email address to receive a link that allows for the password to be reset.  Those who have yet to sign up for an account can do so by clicking the Join Chick-fil-A One tab and completing the available registration form.  Questions about the program can be addressed by dialing 866-232-2040 between the hours of 8 AM and 12 AM ET Monday through Saturday.

Chick-fil-A Customer Care Address

References

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Forgot to Scan the Chick-fil-A One App?  Record Treat Progress Online! 

When something has been earned credit should be provided regardless of whether or not a small technicality has been overlooked.  With that being said, Chick-fil-A One members no longer need to worry about missing out on earned treat progress due to the simple mistake of forgetting to scan the app (something likely to have kept many up tossing and turning all night long).  Fortunately, the simple solution comes in the form of the convenient online tool found at one.chick-fil-a.com/forgot2scan.  The process of recording the treat progress can be initiated by first logging into a Chick-fil-A One account (an email address or one of the available third-party accounts can be used to complete the login).  Once the login has been completed the required information from the Chick-fil-A receipt can be entered to keep track of those tasty treats!  Those who plan on coming back often may want to check the Remember Me box before logging in (might as well speed things up a bit).

Hopefully I’m not the only one who went to Chick-fil-A and forgot 2 scan!

It is important to note that the restaurant number, order date, order number, order method, and order total MUST be entered in order to receive credit for a missed scan at one.chick-fil-a.com/forgot2scan.  Those who are having trouble getting into an account due to a lost or forgotten password can click the Forgot password? link and enter an email address to receive a link that allows for the password to be reset.  Those who have yet to sign up for an account can do so by clicking the Join Chick-fil-A One tab and completing the available registration form.  Questions about the program can be addressed by dialing 866-232-2040 between the hours of 8 AM and 12 AM ET Monday through Saturday.

Chick-fil-A Customer Care Address

References

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Facebook and Instagram will more proactively lock the accounts of users its moderators encounter and suspect are below the age of 13. Its former policy was to only investigate accounts if they were reported specifically for being potentially underage. But Facebook confirmed to TechCrunch that an “operational” change to its policy for reviewers made this week will see them lock the accounts of any underage user they come across, even if they were reported for something else, such as objectionable content, or are otherwise discovered by reviewers. Facebook will require the users to provide proof that they’re over 13, such a government-issued photo ID, to regain access. The problem stems from Facebook not requiring any proof of age upon signup.

Facebook Messenger Kids is purposefully aimed at users under age 13

A tougher stance here could reduce Facebook and Instagram’s user counts and advertising revenue. The apps’ formerly more hands-off approach allowed them to hook young users so by the time they turned 13, they had already invested in building a social graph and history of content that tethers them to the Facebook corporation. While Facebook has lost cache with the youth over time and as their parents joined, Instagram is still wildly popular with them and likely counts many tweens or even younger children as users.

The change comes in response to an undercover documentary report by the UK’s Channel 4 and Firecrest Films that saw a journalist become a Facebook content reviewer through a third-party firm called CPL Resources in Dublin, Ireland. A reviewer there claims they were instructed to ignore users who appeared under 13, saying “We have to have an admission that the person is underage. If not, we just like pretend that we are blind and that we don’t know what underage looks like.” The report also outlined how far-right political groups are subject to different threshholds for deletion than other Pages or accounts if they post hateful content in violation of Facebook’s policies.

In response, Facebook published a blog post on July 16th claiming that that high-profile Pages and registered political groups may receive a second layer of review from Facebook employees. But in an update on July 17th, Facebook noted that “Since the program, we have been working to update the guidance for reviewers to put a hold on any account they encounter if they have a strong indication it is underage, even if the report was for something else.”

Now a Facebook spokesperson confirms to TechCrunch that this is a change to how reviewers are trained to enforce its age policy for both Facebook and Instagram. This does not mean Facebook will begin a broad sweep of its site hunting for underage users, but it will stop ignoring those it comes across. Facebook’s spokesperson stressed that its terms of service that already bars underage users remain the same, but the operational guidance given to moderators for enforcing that policy has changed.

Facebook prohibits users under 13 to comply with the US Child Online Privacy Protection Act that demands that requires parental consent to collect data about children. The change could see more underage users have their accounts terminated. That might in turn reduce the site’s utility for their friends over or under age 13, making them less engaged with the social network.

The news comes in contrast to Facebook purposefully trying to attract underage users through its Messenger Kids app that lets children ages 6 to 12 chat with those approved by their parents, which today expanded to Mexico, beyond the US, Canada, and Peru. With one hand, Facebook is trying to make under-13 users dependent on the social network while pushing them away with the other.

Child Signups Lead to Problems As Users Age

A high-ranking source who worked at Facebook in its early days previously told me that one repercussion of a hands-off approach to policing underage users was that as some got older, Facebook would wrongly believe they were over 18 or over 21.

That’s problematic because it could make minors improperly eligible to see ads for alcohol, real money gambling, loans, or subscription services. They’d also be able to see potentially offensive content such as graphic violence that only appears to users over 18 and is hidden behind a warning interstitial. Facebook might also expose their contact info, school, and birthday in public search results, which it hides for users under 18.

Users who request to change their birthdate may have their accounts suspended, deterring users from coming clean about their real age. A Facebook spokesperson confirmed that in the US, Canada, and EU, if a user listed as over 18 tries to change their age to be under 18 or vice versa, they would be prompted to provide proof of age.

Facebook might be wise to offer an amnesty period to users who want to correct their age without having their accounts suspended. Getting friends to confirm friend requests and building up a profile takes time and social capital that formerly underage users who are now actually over 13 might not want to risk just to able to display their accurate birthdate and protect Facebook. If the company wants to correct the problem, it may need to offer a temporary consequence-free method for users to correct their age. It could then promote this options to its youngest users or those who algorithms suggest might be under 13 based on their connections.

Facebook doesn’t put any real roadblock to signup in front of underage users beyond a self-certification that they are of age, likely to keep it easy to join the social network and grow its business. It’s understandable that some 9- or 11-year-olds would lie to gain access. Blindly believing self-certifications led to the Cambridge Analytica scandal, as the data research firm promised Facebook it had deleted surreptitiously collected user data, but Facebook failed to verify that.

There are plenty of other apps that flout COPPA laws by making it easy for underage children to sign up. Lip-syncing app Musically is particularly notorious for featuring girls under 13 dancing provocatively to modern pop songs in front of audiences of millions — which worryingly include adults. The company’s CEO Alex Zhu angrily denied that it violates COPPA when I confronted him with evidence at TechCrunch Disrupt London in 2016.

Facebook’s Reckoning

The increased scrutiny brought on by the Cambridge Analytica debacle, Russian election interference, screentime addiction, lack of protections against fake news, and lax policy towards conspiracy theorists and dangerous content has triggered a reckoning for Facebook.

Yesterday Facebook announced a content moderation policy update, telling TechCrunch “There are certain forms of misinformation that have contributed to physical harm, and we are making a policy change which will enable us to take that type of content down. We will be begin implementing the policy during the coming months.” That comes in response to false rumors spreading through WhatsApp leading to lynch mobs murdering people in countries like India. The policy could impact conspiracy theorists and publications spreading false news on Facebook, some of which claim to be practicing free speech.

Across safety, privacy, and truth, Facebook will have to draw the line on how proactively to police its social network. It’s left trying to balance its mission to connect the world, its business that thrives on maximizing user counts and engagement, its brand as a family-friendly utility, its responsibility to protect society and democracy from misinformation, and its values that endorse free speech and a voice for everyone. Something’s got to give.

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Facebook and Instagram will more proactively lock the accounts of users its moderators encounter and suspect are below the age of 13. Its former policy was to only investigate accounts if they were reported specifically for being potentially underage. But Facebook confirmed to TechCrunch that an “operational” change to its policy for reviewers made this week will see them lock the accounts of any underage user they come across, even if they were reported for something else, such as objectionable content, or are otherwise discovered by reviewers. Facebook will require the users to provide proof that they’re over 13, such a government-issued photo ID, to regain access. The problem stems from Facebook not requiring any proof of age upon signup.

Facebook Messenger Kids is purposefully aimed at users under age 13

A tougher stance here could reduce Facebook and Instagram’s user counts and advertising revenue. The apps’ formerly more hands-off approach allowed them to hook young users so by the time they turned 13, they had already invested in building a social graph and history of content that tethers them to the Facebook corporation. While Facebook has lost cache with the youth over time and as their parents joined, Instagram is still wildly popular with them and likely counts many tweens or even younger children as users.

The change comes in response to an undercover documentary report by the UK’s Channel 4 and Firecrest Films that saw a journalist become a Facebook content reviewer through a third-party firm called CPL Resources in Dublin, Ireland. A reviewer there claims they were instructed to ignore users who appeared under 13, saying “We have to have an admission that the person is underage. If not, we just like pretend that we are blind and that we don’t know what underage looks like.” The report also outlined how far-right political groups are subject to different threshholds for deletion than other Pages or accounts if they post hateful content in violation of Facebook’s policies.

In response, Facebook published a blog post on July 16th claiming that that high-profile Pages and registered political groups may receive a second layer of review from Facebook employees. But in an update on July 17th, Facebook noted that “Since the program, we have been working to update the guidance for reviewers to put a hold on any account they encounter if they have a strong indication it is underage, even if the report was for something else.”

Now a Facebook spokesperson confirms to TechCrunch that this is a change to how reviewers are trained to enforce its age policy for both Facebook and Instagram. This does not mean Facebook will begin a broad sweep of its site hunting for underage users, but it will stop ignoring those it comes across. Facebook’s spokesperson stressed that its terms of service that already bars underage users remain the same, but the operational guidance given to moderators for enforcing that policy has changed.

Facebook prohibits users under 13 to comply with the US Child Online Privacy Protection Act that demands that requires parental consent to collect data about children. The change could see more underage users have their accounts terminated. That might in turn reduce the site’s utility for their friends over or under age 13, making them less engaged with the social network.

The news comes in contrast to Facebook purposefully trying to attract underage users through its Messenger Kids app that lets children ages 6 to 12 chat with those approved by their parents, which today expanded to Mexico, beyond the US, Canada, and Peru. With one hand, Facebook is trying to make under-13 users dependent on the social network while pushing them away with the other.

Child Signups Lead to Problems As Users Age

A high-ranking source who worked at Facebook in its early days previously told me that one repercussion of a hands-off approach to policing underage users was that as some got older, Facebook would wrongly believe they were over 18 or over 21.

That’s problematic because it could make minors improperly eligible to see ads for alcohol, real money gambling, loans, or subscription services. They’d also be able to see potentially offensive content such as graphic violence that only appears to users over 18 and is hidden behind a warning interstitial. Facebook might also expose their contact info, school, and birthday in public search results, which it hides for users under 18.

Users who request to change their birthdate may have their accounts suspended, deterring users from coming clean about their real age. A Facebook spokesperson confirmed that in the US, Canada, and EU, if a user listed as over 18 tries to change their age to be under 18 or vice versa, they would be prompted to provide proof of age.

Facebook might be wise to offer an amnesty period to users who want to correct their age without having their accounts suspended. Getting friends to confirm friend requests and building up a profile takes time and social capital that formerly underage users who are now actually over 13 might not want to risk just to able to display their accurate birthdate and protect Facebook. If the company wants to correct the problem, it may need to offer a temporary consequence-free method for users to correct their age. It could then promote this options to its youngest users or those who algorithms suggest might be under 13 based on their connections.

Facebook doesn’t put any real roadblock to signup in front of underage users beyond a self-certification that they are of age, likely to keep it easy to join the social network and grow its business. It’s understandable that some 9- or 11-year-olds would lie to gain access. Blindly believing self-certifications led to the Cambridge Analytica scandal, as the data research firm promised Facebook it had deleted surreptitiously collected user data, but Facebook failed to verify that.

There are plenty of other apps that flout COPPA laws by making it easy for underage children to sign up. Lip-syncing app Musically is particularly notorious for featuring girls under 13 dancing provocatively to modern pop songs in front of audiences of millions — which worryingly include adults. The company’s CEO Alex Zhu angrily denied that it violates COPPA when I confronted him with evidence at TechCrunch Disrupt London in 2016.

Facebook’s Reckoning

The increased scrutiny brought on by the Cambridge Analytica debacle, Russian election interference, screentime addiction, lack of protections against fake news, and lax policy towards conspiracy theorists and dangerous content has triggered a reckoning for Facebook.

Yesterday Facebook announced a content moderation policy update, telling TechCrunch “There are certain forms of misinformation that have contributed to physical harm, and we are making a policy change which will enable us to take that type of content down. We will be begin implementing the policy during the coming months.” That comes in response to false rumors spreading through WhatsApp leading to lynch mobs murdering people in countries like India. The policy could impact conspiracy theorists and publications spreading false news on Facebook, some of which claim to be practicing free speech.

Across safety, privacy, and truth, Facebook will have to draw the line on how proactively to police its social network. It’s left trying to balance its mission to connect the world, its business that thrives on maximizing user counts and engagement, its brand as a family-friendly utility, its responsibility to protect society and democracy from misinformation, and its values that endorse free speech and a voice for everyone. Something’s got to give.

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Chinese bike-sharing company Ofo is entering a new phase. After a period of aggressive growth, the company is looking back at its international markets and focusing on the most promising ones.

A couple of weeks ago, the company issued a press release highlighting some of the priorities outside of China. As part of this move, Ofo co-founder and CEO Dai Wei is going to be directly in charge of international markets.

“It’s a new strategical phase on the international front,” Ofo France General Manager and Head of EMEA Laurent Kennel told me. “The company wants to focus on the most mature and promising markets.”

So it means that Ofo will stop altogether in some countries, such as Australia, Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, India and Israel.

At the same time, there are some markets that work quite well. In particular, the press release highlights Singapore, the U.S., the U.K., France and Italy. But even if you look at a more granular level, Ofo is going to focus on some specific cities in particular going forward.

As Quartz and Forbes highlighted, Ofo hasn’t been a massive success in smaller American cities. “In the U.S., some markets work better than others, and they’re going to focus on that,” Kennel said. Instead of operating in dozens of American cities, the company is going to scale back and focus on the most important ones.

In France, Ofo has only been available in Paris for instance. Numbers are encouraging as the company handles 5,000 to 10,000 rides a day with 2,500 bikes.

“[In Paris,] We crossed an important milestone to prove that our business model is sustainable,” Kennel said. “Our revenue covers all our operational and maintenance costs.” That doesn’t include occasional investments to purchase new bikes.

Overall, Kennel was quite optimistic about those remaining markets. By focusing on a limited number of cities, the company can invest properly on each of those markets. In Europe, Ofo is going to focus on the U.K., France and Italy.

Just like in the U.S., Ofo is also reducing the number of cities in the U.K. and Italy. The company recently shut down its service in Norwich and Sheffield. In Italy, there was an internal reorganization and the company stopped operating in the mid-sized city of Varese.

Following Mobike’s acquisition by Meituan, Mobike recently announced that it would stop requiring deposits in China. Ofo still asks for a refundable deposit when you sign up in China, but not in Europe.

Mobike’s deep pockets increase the pressure on Ofo. Ofo needs to find a sustainable business model to become a viable independent company in the long term. “It has an impact on international markets, but also on the internal organization in China,” Kennel said.

Ofo doesn’t want to comment on the situation market-by-market. So it’s hard to know for sure where Ofo still operates and where it plans to scale back. On Ofo’s website, you can find a map with all the markets where it claims to operate. I looked at this map, listed the 21 countries and tried to find out what’s happening at a local level.

This isn’t a perfect list, but it gives a good overview of what’s happening at the company.

Still operating normally as far as I know:

Scaling back operations:

Shutting down:

Unclear:

  • Hungary: service is unavailable in the app
  • Kazakhstan: service is unavailable in the app
  • Russia: service is unavailable in the app
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    Chinese bike-sharing company Ofo is entering a new phase. After a period of aggressive growth, the company is looking back at its international markets and focusing on the most promising ones.

    A couple of weeks ago, the company issued a press release highlighting some of the priorities outside of China. As part of this move, Ofo co-founder and CEO Dai Wei is going to be directly in charge of international markets.

    “It’s a new strategical phase on the international front,” Ofo France General Manager and Head of EMEA Laurent Kennel told me. “The company wants to focus on the most mature and promising markets.”

    So it means that Ofo will stop altogether in some countries, such as Australia, Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, India and Israel.

    At the same time, there are some markets that work quite well. In particular, the press release highlights Singapore, the U.S., the U.K., France and Italy. But even if you look at a more granular level, Ofo is going to focus on some specific cities in particular going forward.

    As Quartz and Forbes highlighted, Ofo hasn’t been a massive success in smaller American cities. “In the U.S., some markets work better than others, and they’re going to focus on that,” Kennel said. Instead of operating in dozens of American cities, the company is going to scale back and focus on the most important ones.

    In France, Ofo has only been available in Paris for instance. Numbers are encouraging as the company handles 5,000 to 10,000 rides a day with 2,500 bikes.

    “[In Paris,] We crossed an important milestone to prove that our business model is sustainable,” Kennel said. “Our revenue covers all our operational and maintenance costs.” That doesn’t include occasional investments to purchase new bikes.

    Overall, Kennel was quite optimistic about those remaining markets. By focusing on a limited number of cities, the company can invest properly on each of those markets. In Europe, Ofo is going to focus on the U.K., France and Italy.

    Just like in the U.S., Ofo is also reducing the number of cities in the U.K. and Italy. The company recently shut down its service in Norwich and Sheffield. In Italy, there was an internal reorganization and the company stopped operating in the mid-sized city of Varese.

    Following Mobike’s acquisition by Meituan, Mobike recently announced that it would stop requiring deposits in China. Ofo still asks for a refundable deposit when you sign up in China, but not in Europe.

    Mobike’s deep pockets increase the pressure on Ofo. Ofo needs to find a sustainable business model to become a viable independent company in the long term. “It has an impact on international markets, but also on the internal organization in China,” Kennel said.

    Ofo doesn’t want to comment on the situation market-by-market. So it’s hard to know for sure where Ofo still operates and where it plans to scale back. On Ofo’s website, you can find a map with all the markets where it claims to operate. I looked at this map, listed the 21 countries and tried to find out what’s happening at a local level.

    This isn’t a perfect list, but it gives a good overview of what’s happening at the company.

    Still operating normally as far as I know:

    Scaling back operations:

    Shutting down:

    Unclear:

  • Hungary: service is unavailable in the app
  • Kazakhstan: service is unavailable in the app
  • Russia: service is unavailable in the app
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array(0) { } ["observables":protected]=> array(0) { } ["with":protected]=> array(0) { } ["morphClass":protected]=> NULL ["exists"]=> bool(true) ["wasRecentlyCreated"]=> bool(false) } [5]=> object(App\SubCategories)#351 (23) { ["table":protected]=> string(14) "sub_categories" ["connection":protected]=> NULL ["primaryKey":protected]=> string(2) "id" ["perPage":protected]=> int(15) ["incrementing"]=> bool(true) ["timestamps"]=> bool(true) ["attributes":protected]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(16) ["parent_id"]=> int(2) ["priority"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(6) "Email " ["slug"]=> string(5) "email" ["scroll_type"]=> string(10) "pagination" ["show_in_menu"]=> int(1) ["show_in_sidebar"]=> int(1) ["show_in_footer"]=> int(1) ["seo_title"]=> string(0) "" ["seo_keywords"]=> string(0) "" ["seo_description"]=> string(0) "" ["created_at"]=> string(19) "2017-03-11 18:06:23" ["updated_at"]=> string(19) "2017-03-11 18:22:27" ["mega_menu_posts"]=> object(Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Collection)#328 (1) 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bool(false) } [7]=> object(App\SubCategories)#353 (23) { ["table":protected]=> string(14) "sub_categories" ["connection":protected]=> NULL ["primaryKey":protected]=> string(2) "id" ["perPage":protected]=> int(15) ["incrementing"]=> bool(true) ["timestamps"]=> bool(true) ["attributes":protected]=> array(15) { ["id"]=> int(20) ["parent_id"]=> int(2) ["priority"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(5) "Video" ["slug"]=> string(5) "video" ["scroll_type"]=> string(10) "pagination" ["show_in_menu"]=> int(1) ["show_in_sidebar"]=> int(1) ["show_in_footer"]=> int(1) ["seo_title"]=> string(0) "" ["seo_keywords"]=> string(0) "" ["seo_description"]=> string(0) "" ["created_at"]=> string(19) "2017-03-12 16:54:33" ["updated_at"]=> string(19) "2017-03-12 16:54:33" ["mega_menu_posts"]=> object(Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Collection)#355 (1) { ["items":protected]=> array(0) { } } } ["original":protected]=> array(14) { ["id"]=> int(20) ["parent_id"]=> int(2) ["priority"]=> int(1) ["title"]=> string(5) "Video" 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